RICHARD & CARL ADAM
Köningsburg, East Prussia, Germany.
This company produced toys before and after the turn of the century. Their range of toys is very similar to that of Lehmann.
ARCADE MANUFACTURING COMPANY
Freeport, Il. U.S.A.
Started in 1868, as the Novelty Iron Works,in 1885 they moved to a new section of town, and renamed the company after the new neighbourhood. In 1884 the firm started producing the first line of toys, which were coffee grinders. The Arcade line of toys swelled to over three hundred different items by 1939. The companys name is usually cast onto the inside of the toy. On of the firms specialities was cars, and they developed perhaps the finest line of cast iron automotive toys ever produced.
THE ARNOLD COMPANY
Founded by Karl Arnold in 1906. Between 1906 and 1939, this company produced small boats, steam accessories and inexpensive novelty toys. From 1945 they expanded their toy line , and today are known for their 1960s range of Arnold Rapido N gauge model trains.
The firm was founded in 1899 by Wenman J. Bassett-Lowke. Lowke was said to be the founder of model railways, and he encouraged Nuremburg companies to produce near-scale models on this theme. In particular he had a long working relationship with Stefan Bing. During the war years most W. J. Bassett-Lowke models were produced in England. After 1953, the company moved away from trains and turned their attention to other areas.
Founded by brothers, Ignaz and Adolf Bing in 1863. During the first seventeen years, the company retailed toys, and in the 1880s they turned to manufacturing. From 1895 to the First World War, the company employed up to 5,000 employees. In the worldwide depression of the twenties, the company ran into financial trouble and in1932 the Bing company went into receivership. After production ceased the company was purchased by Karl Burb.
Many different trademarks were used. They were applied by transfers, embossed on tinplateor stamped on a separate metal plate which was applied to the toy. The trademark GBN with radial lines was first used in October 1906. BW was introduced in May 1923
Providence, R.I., U.S.A.
Founded in 1832, R.Bliss Mfg. was an early wooden toymaking company. They are noted for their brightly lithographed paper on wood blocks, dolls houses, boats, and trains.
VICTOR BONNET ET CIE.
The company of Fernand Martin was purchased by Victor Bonnet et CIE just after World War 1. All novelty toys had V.B. et CIE printed on the lid of the box. In the late 40s and into the 50s a tin road vehicle series was produced and stamped VEBE.
GEORGE BORGFELDT & COMPANY
New York, N.Y., U.S.A.
George Borgfeldt formed a partnership with Marcell and Josepgh L. Kahle in 1881. This company distributed toys under the agreement that the producing firm could not mark their toy with their own name or trademark. Instead, Borgfeldts name, or the company names Nifty trademark consisting of a smiling half-moon face, would appear. The firm closed some time around 1962. It is mostly known for its splendid lithographed tinplate comic character toys.
MILTON BRADLEY CO.
Springfield, Mass. U.S.A.
Founded in 1860 in Springfield Mass. They produced games and a variety of toys. Today they produce games, and supply many educational materials.
Founded in 1914, the registered trademark was Nelson´s Column. The company may have had a connection with Bing. They made a small number of road vehicles and joined Wells to form Wells Brimtoy in 1932. (176)
Founded in 1851, little is known of this firms production in the nineteenth century. In the early 1900s Bub produced many toys with Carette which were catalogued even after Carette went out of business in 1917. The 1920s was a very successful time for Bub, in which they produced several different motor cars, trains and railway related toys. In the early thirties Bub took over the production of Bing trains, some of which bore trademarks of both companies. By the end of the Second World War, the company was faltering, and by the 1960s, it had closed down.
Little is known of this company other than that it was active in the late 19th Century, and that it produced delicate horse-drawn toy carriages.
BUFFALO TOY & TOOL WORKS
Buffalo, N.Y., U.S.A.
Established in 1924, this firm marketed a line of lightweight, lithographed and pressed-steel toys and games.
Founded by Georges Carette in 1886. Using the backing of the Hopf brewery, Carette rapidly built a large toymaking company. By the turn of the century, Carettes range included a very large numbers of cars, boats, railways, aircraft and steam related toys. Although he had a German wife, Carette was a French citizen and he was forced to return to Paris when World War I broke out. The company ceased production in 1917.
CARLISE & FINCH COMPANY
Cincinnati, Oh, U.S.A.
The partnership between Robert S. Finch and Martin Carlisle was formed in 1893. Beginning in 1896 the partners began producing a line of electrical novelties including trolleys and trains. Later they added boats and automobiles to their range. The company also acted as a distributor and marketed toys made by Knapp Electric. the company is still in business today but it no longer produces toys.
FRANCIS W. CARPENTER COMPANY
Founded in 1894, the F.W. Carpenter Company was noted for producing cast iron and malleable iron toys. They closed in 1925
J. CHEIN & COMPANY
New York, N.Y., U.S.A.
Founded by Julias Chein in 1903, the company flourished due to the embargo placed on German toys as a result of World War I. The company eventually moved to Harrison, New Jersey, and it created a diverse range of toy vehicles, as well as numerous splendid comic character toys. Chein is still in business today, but their activities are geared more towards housewares than toys.
Citroen started the production of toy cars in 1923 as exact models of the real car, and they were used as promotional items. Citroen almost always stencilled a motif on their toys, although a metal trade plate was occasionally used. Production was reduced substantially by the 1930s and the range diminished. After the Second World War, J.R.D. took over production.
CHARLES M. CRANDALL COMPANY
Covington, Pa, U.S.A.
Founded in 1820 in Covington, Pa, the company moved to Waverly, N.Y. in 1885, and joined with Moses Tymen to form Waverly Toy Works. Noted for wooden toys and games, they closed in 1905.
Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A.
Jesse Crandall was an inventor, designer, manufacturer and retailer of velocipedes, games, rocking and hobby horses. His firm was founded in 1840 and closed in the 1880s.
Fullerton, Pa, U.S.A.
The firm was founded in 1895 by Henry Dent and four partners. Dent produced a fine line of cast iron automotive toys and they are probably best known for their Mack trucks. The company discontinued the toy line in the 1930s.
DEUTCHES REICHS GEBRAUCHS MUSTER (D.R.G.M.).
This is a second grade of patent which lasts for three, or occassionally six years. A list of these names has not been published in the annual Patent Indexes, thus making them difficult to trace. One source of information is the Patent Gazettes of the time.
DEUTSCHES REICHS PATENT (D.R.P.).
This mark is a sign of a full German patent. The numbers were issued in date order and give an idea of the date on which the company was formed.
Production started at the end of the 19th Century. Prior to the First World War Distler made the well-known Penny-toy road vehicles. Many of these had either a thistle trademark or the monogram JD. In the 1920s and 30s the company produced novelty toys, cars and trains, which bore either the globe mark or no trademark at all.
DOLL ET CIE.
Founded in 1898 by John Sondheim and tinsmith Peter Doll. During the companys early years, production concentrated on stationary steam engines and accessories. When a third partner, Max Bein joined the company just before the outbreak of the First World War, they started producing many clockwork novelty toys. In the 1920s and the 1930s, the production of steam engines continued together with that of trains, a steam car and a lorry. The company had a change of ownership in the late 1930s when Fleischmann took it over. The Doll name was retained and used until the post-war period.
Founded in 1900 the firm produced cars and novelty toys, they were noted for their high quality finishing. The second trademark was used in 1906. Production appears to have ceased after 1918.
The firm was founded in 1922 and used no tradework until 1935. After 1935, the Technofix trademark was used as shown.
H. FISCHER & CO.
Founded in 1908. It is thought that the trademark of a figure in armour is connected with this company as was as that of the famous fish. It is not clear, however, when either of these were used. The company was trading up to the 1930s.
This company was founded in 1887. However, remarkably little is known about the firms first forty years. Fleischmann is best known for the production of toy boats in the 1920s and the 1930s. Their model makers produced liners for the publicity department of Norddeutsche Lloyd. Fleischmann took over Doll et Cie in 1939 and began making trains for which they are renowned today.
GIBBS MANUFACTURING COMPANY
Canton, Oh, U.S.A.
Established around 1889, they are best known for their doll-sized wooden wagons, tops, and push and pull toys. Their best feature was the use of lithographed paper on wood
This company was started in 1887 by S. Gunthermann. After being widowed, the founders wife married the company manager Adolf Weigel, and the initials A.W. appeared in the early Gunthermann trademark during the period 1903-1920. The logo changed after Weigels death in 1920. Gunthermann was taken over by Siemens in 1965.
HARRIS TOY COMPANY
Toledo, Oh. U.S.A.
This foundry began producing cast iron toys circa 1887. Harris also acted as jobbers for Hubley, Williams and Dent. The company was sold in 1913.
To date Hess is recognised as one of the first toy manufacturers. It was founded in the 1820s by Mathias Hess. The company continued to produce toys until the death of Mr. Hess in 1886. At this time, his son assumed control of the company and renamed it John Leonard Hess, which explains the trademark JLH. Production ceased in the 1930s.
N.H. HILL BRASS COMPANY
East Hampton, Conn. U.S.A.
Established in 1889, this firm was a branch of the National Novelty Corporation of New York. They manufactured bells and bell toys.
HUBLEY MANUFACTURING COMPANY
Lancaster, Pa., U.S.A.
Founded inby John E. Hubley and other investors circa 1894 they produced cast iron horse-drawn wagons, fire engines and miniature stoves. Hubley developed a fine line of cast iron automotive toys which dominated the cast iron toy market of the 1930s. In 1955 the name changed to Gabriel Industries.
Founded in Nuremburg in 1861 by Johann Andreas Issmayer, they are well-known for their small finely lithographed trains, which were marketed by Bing and Carette. Production ceased in the 1930s
E. & R. IVES
Bridgeport, Conn., U.S.A.
Well known for producing a vast array of tin and cast iron toys including horse-drawn vehicles, locomotives and novelty toys. The firms name changed several times. Harry Ives took over the firm in 1895. Around the turn of the century the company introduced several new lines, most notably gauge O and gauge 1 tram sets. Ives fell victim to the great depression in 1929 and hence was taken over by Lionel.
It is believed that JEP was established in Paris in 1899 as S.I.F. (The Societe Industrielle de Ferblanterie) the name was changed to Jouets de Paris in 1928 when the firm was introducing a new line of toy autos. In 1932 the de was dropped and the en was inserted to make the name JEP. The firm used this trademark until it closed in 1965.
KELLERMANN AND COMPANY
Producers of toys in the 1920s and 1930s, they became important post-war toy producers. CKO was their trademark.
KENTON HARDWARE COMPANY
Kenton, Oh., U.S.A.
Established in 1890 as Kenton Lock Manufacturing Company. Toy production began in 1894 with toy stoves, banks, and horse-drawn fire equipment. Kenton joined the National Novelty Corporation of New Jersey in 1903. This group of thirty-seven manufacturers failed in 1907. Kenton survived this failure, reorganising and reopening the company in 1909. In the 1920s and the 1930s the firms line was predominantly cast iron automotive toys.
KINDLER AND BRIEL
The trademarks for this firm include Kibri and K & B.B.
KNAPP ELECTRIC NOVELTY COMPANY
New York, N.Y., U.S.A.
Founded in 1899, Knapp was one of the earliest producers of electric toy trains and automobiles.
Founded in 1876 by Moses Kohnstam, the company distributed for all but the largest German toy producers. Many of the toys they sold were marked with the Moko trademark.
KYSER AND REX
Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.A.
Founded in 1884, the firm produced patented toys and banks until the 1890. After that time its founder continued to patent banks and license them to other manufacturers.
Founded by Ernst Paul Lehmann, the firm produced highly lithographed novelty tinplate toys with exciting action provided by a clockwork mechanism. After the founders death in 1934 the company was continued by his cousin, Johanes Richter. After World War II the Brandenburg factory continued to produce. Using the Lehmann name, the Richter family started toy manufacturing in Nuremberg in 1951.
Production commenced around 1920, and continued until the early 1930s. At that time Levy sold the firm and moved to England. The company continued to produce toys until 1971 under the name Nuremburg Tin Toys Factory.
LINES BROTHERS LTD.
Founded by brothers J and G Lines, around 1910. This firm produced a variety of toys using Minic and Triang as trademarks.
New York, N.Y., U.S.A.
Founded by Joshua Lionel Cowen in 1901, the company manufactured 2 standard gauge and O gauge tinplate trains. They are still producing trains today.
Started in 1846, the company produced produced tinplate wreaths and toys. In 1857 the firm was joined by Josef Englert to form Englert and Lutz. In 1869 Englert left the company and by 1871 the firm was known as Ludwig Lutz. The company grew and expanded, manufacturing fine clockwork trains, boats and other toys. They were known for their high quality and in 1891 were sold to Marklin.
Founded by Georg Adam Mangold, the firms toys were distributed prior to 1940 by Moses Kohnstam. Gamma is a postwar trademark of this firm.
Founded in 1859 by Theodor Friedrich Wilhelm Marklin and his wife Caroline. Their first toys were mainly doll-house kitchens and were marketed under the name of W. Marklin. Theodor Marklin died in 1886, and the firm was run by Caroline until 1888. It was at this time that Marklins sons Eugen and Karl began managing the company, changing the name to Gebruder Marklin. From 1892 to 1997 the company conitinued under the leadership of E. Marklin and E. Fritz. In 1907 the company changed its name to Gebruder Marklin & Co., which it retains to this day. Marklin created some of the finest German hand-painted tin toys and trains ever made.
Founded by F. Martin in Paris, the firm soon became one of the most profile manufacturers of colourful clockwork novelty toys. A few years after the founders death in 1919 the company was taken over by Victor Bonnet et Cie.
LOUIS MARX AND COMPANY
New York, N.Y., U.S.A.
After working for Ferdinand Strauss, Louis Marx started his own business in 1919, becoming an innovator in American toy manufacturing. He revolutionised the toy business by manufacturing better toys at a lower price. The Marx trademark was registered in 1932. Although the firm produced an incredibly diverse range of toys they are probably best remembered for their colourfully lithographed comic character toys.
Founded in 1924. Very little is known about many Japanese toy firms. Whether they were jobbers or manufacturers in many cases still poses a question. This trademark apppears on many tinplate and celluloid toys.
New York, N.Y., U.S.A.
Founded in 1854 they are noted for their manufacturing paper on wood games, colourfully lithographed picture books, optical toys and childrens blocks
First registered in 1906, they succeeded Frank Hornbys original firm. They marketed an O gauge clockwork train in 1920 and the first electric train in 1925. Hornby Boats and Dinky Toys followed in the 1930s. In 1964 the original company, whose founder had died in 1936, was taken over by the Lines Brothers.
METTOY COMPANY LTD.
Founded by Henry Ullman, the former proprietor of Tipp and Company, after his enforced emigration from Germany. Today this company is a well-known manufacturer of die-cast Corgi toys.
MULLER AND KADEDER
This company was active between 1900 and 1912 and used the MK trademark. It was well-known for a variety of aeronautical, automotive, carousel, and novelty toys
This company produced a variety of inexpensive tin toys before the First World War and again in the 1920s. This was the trademark of Oro Werke, Neil Blechschmidt and Muller.
Founded in the early 1900s by Raimundo Paya. They are known for the simple toys and floor trains, and in the 1920s 0 gauge train sets.
Founded in 1866, they were manufacturers of live-steam engines, and magic lanterns. Cars, boats and trains were added at the turn of the century and in 1930 the Schuller Brothers took the firm over and the toy production came to a halt.
PRATT AND LETCHWORTH
Buffalo, N.Y., U.S.A.
This firm produced quality cast iron toys and also used the names Buffalo Toy Works and Buffalo Indestructable Malleable Iron and Steelworks. They were active in the 1880s and 1890s.
An early French manufacturer founded in 1872. This firm was noted for its fine brass steam engines and boats. Production stopped in 1902 and the toys were not usually trademarked.
ROCK AND GRANER
Started in 1813 and dissolved in 1904. One for the earliest of all the German toymakers. Manufacturers of fine hand-painted tin toys, Rock and Graners work is often compared to early Marklin toys. A leading manufacturer of trains, boats, and doll furniture.
Founded by Charles Rossignol in 1868. They produced floor trains, and a series of motor cars and O and I gauge floor trains. They introduced a range of Paris buses in the 1920s and continued until they went out of business in 1962.
Founded in 1875. The companys factory had to be fully re-equipped after a fire in 1891. They were producers of steam engines and magic lanterns in the earlier years, and after the turn of the century produced a line of boats and fire engines, the majority of which were fired by steam. After 1906, evidence shows J.Falk continued to use Schoeners tooling.
Founded in 1912 by H. Schreyer and Heinrich Muller. The company traded under the name of Schreyer and Company and used the trademark Schuco. They produced ingenious mechanical toys in the 1930s and after World War II. The company is still in production.
C.G. SHEPARD AND COMPANY
Buffalo, N.Y., U.S.A.
Founded in 1866 in Buffalo, N.Y., the company manufactured tin horns and mechanical banks.
WILLAIM SHIMER SON AND CO.
Freemansburg, Pa., U.S.A.
Founded in 1875, Shimer produced cast iron toys and mechanical banks.
Founded by Walter Stock in 1906, the company manufactured clockwork novelty toys of an inexpensive nature until approximately 1930.
FERDINAND STRAUSS CORP.
New York, N.Y., U.S.A.
Established circa 1900, Strauss retailed various German toys with his companys name. He became a producer of toys in 1914 after the war cut off European sources. Strauss became known as the Founder of the mechanical toy industry in America. Although he sold part of his manufacturing interest, he continued to be active in the field.
TIPP AND COMPANY
Founded in 1912 by Mrs Tipp and Mr Carstens. Tipp was succeeded in the first year by Philip Ullman and by 1919 he had become sole proprietor. For the next decade he prospered, but in the year 1933 he was forced to emigrate to England. The firm was taken over by the German Government and put under the management of a former Bing director. In 1971 the company was closed down.
Founded in 1879, the company manufactured one of the first electric trains. Their early trains surpassed American manufacturers at that time, and their quality was surpassed only by German train manufacturers.
WEEDEN MANUFACTURING COMPANY
New Bedford, Mass., U.S.A.
Founded in 1880, the company manufactured stream engines, toys and banks.
WELKER & CROSBY
Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A.
A manufacturer of cast-iron horse-drawn vehicles, this company was only active from 1885-1888. Crosby was later employed by Pratt and Letchworth.
A. WELLS AND COMPANY
Founded by Alfred Wells in 1919, the Wells O London trademark appeared in 1924. The company then produced a clockwork train set (O gauge) and a variety of lithographed tinplate vehicles, undercutting the German competitors.
Keene, New Hampshire, U.S.A.
Founded in 1888, they produced cast iron and steel toys. They were acquired by Kingsbury Manufacturing Company in 1894 and are still in production to date.